Is A Booster Dose Recommended For This Vaccine
A booster dose may be considered 4 6 months after completion of the primary vaccination series,starting with the higher priority-use groups, in accordance with the WHO Prioritization Roadmap.
WHO recommends the dosage of the booster dose is half the dose used in the primary vaccination series .
The benefits of booster vaccination are recognized following increasing evidence of waning vaccine effectiveness against mild and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection over time.
Q: Is It True That Women Are More Likely To Get Worse Side Effects From The Vaccine Than Men
An analysis from the first 13.7 million Covid-19 vaccine doses given to Americans found that side effects were more common in women. And while severe reactions to the Covid vaccine are rare, nearly all the cases of anaphylaxis, or life-threatening allergic reactions, occurred in women.
The finding that women are more likely to report and experience unpleasant side effects to the Covid vaccine is consistent with other vaccines as well. Women and girls can produce up to twice as many antibodies after receiving flu shots and vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella and hepatitis A and B. One study found that over nearly three decades, women accounted for 80 percent of all adult anaphylactic reactions to vaccines.
While its true that women may be more likely to report side effects than men, the higher rate of side effects in women also has a biological explanation. Estrogen can stimulate an immune response, whereas testosterone can blunt it. In addition, many immune-related genes are on the X chromosome, of which women have two copies and men have only one. These differences may help explain why far more women than men are afflicted with autoimmune disease, which occurs when a robust immune response attacks the bodys healthy tissue. You can read more about women and vaccine side effects here.
Read More On The Coronavirus Pandemic
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- Rural America: New research found that Covid killed Black and Hispanic people across small towns and farmlands at considerably higher rates last year than it did their white neighbors.
- Parents and Pandemic Politics: They were once Democrats and Republicans. But fears for their children fueled by vaccine skepticism have turned them into single-issue voters, on the side of no vaccine mandates for their children.
- Coronavirus Origins: Two new studies exploring how the Covid outbreak began, concluded that the wet market in Wuhan, China, was the likely epicenter of its emergence.
Scientists still arent sure how effective the vaccines are in people whose immune systems may be weakened from certain medical conditions, such as cancer treatments or H.I.V. infection or because they are taking immune suppressing drugs. But most experts believe the vaccines still offer these patients some protection against Covid-19.
The bottom line is that even though individual immune responses can vary, the data collected so far show that all three vaccines approved in the United States Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson are effective against severe illness and death from Covid-19.
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Can Antipyretics/analgesics Like Ibuprofen Suppress The Immune Response To The Covid
The appropriate use of antipyretics/analgesics, like ibuprofen, is recommended by public health authorities to help relieve symptoms that may be experienced following vaccination.1,2 This is consistent with the fact that in the late-stage COVID-19 vaccine studies, participants were allowed to use antipyretics/analgesics to treat symptoms.3-6
People should carefully read and follow the post-vaccination information or instructions provided to them at the time of vaccination, including any recommendations about the use of ibuprofen to relieve pain and fever symptoms that some people might experience following a COVID-19 vaccine. If there are any questions, a doctor or pharmacist should be consulted for further advice.
Remedies For Sore Arms: Ice And Movement
Once a vaccine goes into your arm, blood flow increases and immune cells rush to the scene. This can result in pain at the injection site the most common side effect of all three US-authorized coronavirus vaccines.
The CDC recommends applying a clean, cool washcloth over the area where you received your shot to reduce soreness. An ice park works, too, Dr. Lipi Roy, an internal medicine physician in New York City, .
Experts also recommended moving your vaccinated arm to stimulate blood flow.
“By moving the arm, it helps disperse that local area of inflammation faster,” Dr. Daniel Summers, a pediatrician in Maine, recently told Insider.
But don’t massage the vaccine site with your hand, he said that could worsen inflammation and pain.
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Side Effects Not Requiring Immediate Medical Attention
Some side effects of sars-cov-2 mrna-1273 vaccine may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects.
Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:
Incidence not known
- Bleeding, blistering, burning, coldness, discoloration of the skin, feeling of pressure, hives, infection, inflammation, itching, lumps, numbness, pain, rash, redness, scarring, soreness, stinging, swelling, tenderness, tingling, ulceration, or warmth at the injection site
What Should You Keep Doing Even After Being Fully Vaccinated
- Keep wearing a mask, staying at least 6 feet apart from others and avoiding crowds and poorly ventilated spaces when in public, gathering with unvaccinated people from more than one household or visiting with an unvaccinated person who is at increased risk of severe illness or death from COVID-19 or who lives with a person at increased risk
- Continue to avoid medium or large-sized gatherings
- Take steps to protect yourself and others if you travel, including wearing masks on planes, buses, trains and other forms of public transportation
- Watch out for COVID-19 symptoms, especially if you’ve been around someone who is sick
- Follow guidance at your workplace
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Background On Immunogenicity And Reactogenicity Of Vaccines
Immune responses and the effectiveness of vaccines differ throughout life. At birth, the childs immune system is considered immature, and maternal antibodies transferred trans-placentally and by breast feeding can interfere with vaccination. Consequently, many childhood vaccines are administered after several months of age, when the immune system has matured and maternal antibodies have waned. However, even in the absence of maternal antibodies, increasing age has been associated with better vaccine efficacy. Indeed, dengue vaccination in younger children between the ages of 2 and 6 years old showed lower vaccine efficacy than older children, even though both groups were immunologically naïve to dengue at baseline,. The effectiveness of measles vaccination between 12 and 18 months of age is another good example of this phenomenon. With aging, the thymus involutes and naïve T cell production declines which, together with other age-related changes, leads to immunosenescence. Comorbidities can also impact immune responses and affect vaccine efficacy in the elderly. Thus, immunological findings from different vaccine studies may not be broadly applicable across all age groups.
Can I Drink Alcohol
There has been no guidance from the CDC that people need to avoid drinking alcohol after being vaccinated.
But medical experts say heavy drinking should be avoided because dehydration could make other symptoms worse, and it could also weaken your immune system, which needs to be at full strength to avoid an adverse response to the vaccine.
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Doctors And Scientists Agree That Covid
Ibuprofen/Advil is a leading over-the-counter fever and pain reliever that has been used safely and effectively for over 35+ years in 40 countries.* At GSK, the makers of Advil, safety remains our number one priority, and we support the scientific pursuit of evidence for ibuprofen/Advils safe use.
*When used as directed
According to current scientific literature and leading health agencies including the FDA, WHO, CDC, NHS and EMA, there is no evidence that OTC ibuprofen/Advil makes COVID-19 symptoms worse.
The World Health Organization lists ibuprofen as an essential medicine for treating pain & fever associated with mild COVID-19 symptoms.
The CDC recommends taking pain relievers like ibuprofen to relieve side effects after a COVID-19 vaccination, if you have no other medical reasons that prevent you from taking these medications normally.
Safety remains GSKs number one priority, and we support the ongoing scientific pursuit of data that builds upon ibuprofen/Advil’s safety profile.
Can I Take Ibuprofen After The Vaccine
Following injection of the coronavirus jab, many people have experienced mild side effects.
You may wish to use pain relief to counter these, which can range from a headache to a fever.
Although there is limited evidence, some experts believe that painkillers might interfere with what the vaccine is trying to do.
The coronavirus vaccine works by tricking the body into believing it has a virus so it can build an immune defence against it.
Thats whats happening when you experience muscle aches, arm soreness or any other symptom of inflammation after your jab. It just means the vaccine is working.
Certain painkillers which target inflammation, like ibuprofen, could therefore curb the immune response that the vaccine is trying to generate.
A study on mice in the Journal of Virology found that these drugs could lower the production of antibodies – the substances that fight the virus when it tries to infect cells.
For these reasons, some medical professionals say it is better not to take a painkiller after getting the vaccine if you do not need it, unless you routinely take them for a medical condition.
The official NHS website advises: You can take painkillers, such as paracetamol, if you need to.
If you experience increased pain and redness around the jab location, or if your symptoms persist for a few more days, you should contact your doctor.
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Table 13 Systemic Reactions In Persons Aged 65 Years Moderna Covid
a Fever Grade 3: 39.0 40.0°C or 102.1 104.0°F Grade 4: > 40.0°C or > 104.0°Fb Headache Grade 3: significant any use of prescription pain reliever or prevented daily activity Grade 4: requires emergency room visit or hospitalization.c Fatigue, Myalgia, Arthralgia Grade 3: significant prevented daily activity Grade 4: required emergency room visit or hospitalization.d Nausea/Vomiting Grade 3: prevented daily activity, required outpatient intravenous hydration Grade 4: Requires emergency room visit or hospitalization for hypotensive shock.e Chills Grade 3: prevented daily activity and required medical intervention Grade 4: required emergency room visit or hospitalization.
Side Effects Requiring Immediate Medical Attention
Along with its needed effects, sars-cov-2 mrna-1273 vaccine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Check with your doctor or nurse immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking sars-cov-2 mrna-1273 vaccine:
- muscle aches, cramps, pains, or stiffness
- chest pain, possible moving to the left arm, neck, or shoulder
- puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue
- trouble breathing
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Reactogenicity Of Current Covid
The urgent need for COVID-19 vaccines posed an unprecedented dilemmathe need to expedite preclinical and clinical development of vaccines without jeopardizing safety and efficacy evaluation. Table summarizes available reactogenicity data for the COVID-19 vaccines currently approved for emergency use.
Table 2 Reactogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines approved by WHO for emergency use.
Does Ibuprofen Affect Covid
In general, published clinical studies assessing vaccine immunogenicity and the impact of antipyretic/analgesic use are limited and vary with regard to the vaccines evaluated and the study population . Although some studies have observed no significant difference and other studies have shown a diminished immune response to vaccines in the setting of NSAID or acetaminophen use, the data are inconsistent and vary among different vaccines, serotypes, antipyretic agent, and timing of administration .
The impact of an antipyretic/analgesic, such as Advil®, on COVID-19 vaccine immunogenicity is not expected to differ from the impact that an antipyretic/analgesic has on the immunogenicity of nonCOVID-19 vaccines. The currently available COVID-19 vaccines in the USA require 2 injections, the second dose being a booster to optimize immune response. Hence, the use of antipyretics and pain medications, like ibuprofen, to treat symptoms associated with vaccine administration or ongoing medical conditions was permitted in the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccine protocols .3-6
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Will Taking Ibuprofen/advil Worsen The Symptoms Of Coronavirus
Research has been ongoing and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is currently not aware of scientific evidence establishing a link between NSAIDs and worsening of COVID-19.
When asked if Advil makes COVID-19 symptoms worse, Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, responded, no. Read the full Aug. 13 article here: .
We advise you speak directly with your doctor or healthcare provider if you have questions about your individual treatment needs.
Effect Of Analgesic And Antipyretic Medicines On Immune Responses To Covid
Only one study has specifically addressed the effect of the analgesic and antipyretic medication on the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines. However, in most of the other COVID-19 vaccine trials, participants were allowed to use analgesics and antipyretics to treat post-vaccination symptoms. Where available, data from these studies offer some insight into the potential impact of these medicines on immune responses to COVID-19 vaccines .
Table 3 Use of analgesic/antipyretic medication on symptoms following COVID-19 vaccination in clinical trials.
Phase 2/3 data on BNT162b2 showed that younger vaccine recipients were more likely to use antipyretic or pain medication than older recipients and both age groups were more likely to use these medications following vaccination with BNT162b2 than placebo . Vaccine efficacy against confirmed COVID-19 was 95.0% for onset at 7 days after the second vaccination with similar efficacy observed across subgroups defined by age, sex, race, ethnicity, baseline body mass index, and the presence of coexisting conditions. In the Phase 1 part of the trial, analgesic/antipyretic use was reported more frequently with increasing dose and number of doses.
To date, there are no published data on the use of analgesic/antipyretic medication with mRNA-1273 , BBIBP-CorV , or Coronavac vaccines.
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Plan To Take Time Off Work After Your Second Dose
A recent CDC report examined side effects among more than 1.9 million Americans who’d received both doses of Pfizer’s or Moderna’s vaccines. Across the board, side effects were more numerous and severe after the second dose of either vaccine.
The one exception is if you’d have COVID-19 before: A small study from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai found that vaccine side effects such as fatigue, headaches, and chills were more common after the first dose among people with preexisting immunity to the coronavirus than among people who’d never been infected.
In any case, medical experts said, plan to take time off work if you’re feeling run-down.
“Take the sick day because you will be less effective at the work you’re doing,” Nachman said.
Table 3 Systemic Reactions In Persons Ages 623 Months Moderna Mrna
|Dose 1 6-23 Months
aGrade for fever: grade 3=39-40.0°C grade 4=> 40.0°C.
bGrade 3: prevents daily activity Grade 4: emergency room visit or hospitalization for severe pain at the injection site.
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Table 7 Systemic Reactions In Persons Aged 611 Years Moderna Mrna
|Dose 1 6-11 Years
a Any: 38.0°C Severe: 39°C to 40.0°C Grade 4: > 40.0°C
b Severe: prevents daily activity Grade 4: emergency room visit or hospitalization
* Grade 4 event reported due to error in eDiary data entry, event was actually grade 0 .
Q: Ive Heard The Covid Vaccine Side Effects Especially After The Second Dose Can Be Really Bad Should I Be Worried
Short-lived side effects like fatigue, headache, muscle aches and fever are more common after the second dose of both the Pfizer-BioNTech and the Moderna vaccines, which each require two shots. Patients who experience unpleasant side effects after the second dose often describe feeling as if they have a bad flu and use phrases like it flattened me or I was useless for two days. During vaccine studies, patients were advised to schedule a few days off work after the second dose just in case they needed to spend a day or two in bed.
Data collected from v-safe, the smartphone-based tool everyone is encouraged to use to track side effects after vaccination, also show an increase in reported side effects after the second dose. For instance, about 29 percent of people reported fatigue after the first Pfizer-BioNTech shot, but that jumped to 50 percent after the second dose. Muscle pain rose from 17 percent after the first shot to 42 percent after the second. While only about 7 percent of people got chills and fever after the first dose, that increased to about 26 percent after the second dose.
The New York Times interviewed several dozen of the newly vaccinated in the days afterward. They recounted a wide spectrum of responses, from no reaction at all to symptoms like uncontrolled shivering and brain fog. While these experiences arent pleasant, they are a sign that your own immune system is mounting a potent response to the vaccine.